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Deer

 

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Axis Deer
Axis Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Axis axis
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height: 80-100 cm (31-40 in)
Adult Stag Weight: 80 kg (176 lb)
HABITAT: In their native country of India, Axis deer are natural forest dwellers.
DISTRIBUTION: Indigenous throughout India and Sri Lanka.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least concern

Bactrian or Bukhara Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cervus elaphus bactrianus
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height 120 cm (47 in)
Adult Stag Weight 80 kg (176 lb)
HABITAT: Bactrian deer live in lowland riparian corridors of mixed deciduous Willow and poplar vegetation surrounded by deserts.
DISTRIBUTION: The Bactrian deer, also called the Bukhara deer, is a lowland subspecies of Red Deer that is native to central Asia.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Vulnerable.

Barasingha

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Rucervus duvaucelii
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height up to 132 cm or 52 inches
HABITAT: The Barasingha occupies a wide variety of forest types, including dry and moist deciduous forest, mangrove forest and evergreen forest, but its prime habitat in the past has been grasslands and reed beds bordering the major rivers in the northern part of its range.
DISTRIBUTION: The Barasingha is currently found in isolated localities in north and central India, and southwestern Nepal. It is extinct in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Vulnerable.

Fallow Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Dama dama
Male: Buck / Female: Doe / Young: Fawn
Adult Buck Shoulder Height 81 – 91 cm (32-36 in)
HABITAT: Fallow have adapted to a range of habitats, however in Britain they prefer mixed patches of pastures and deciduous or mixed woodland
DISTRIBUTION: Indigenous to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe. Feral distribution includes the British Isles, many European Countries, North America, South America, Australasia, Africa and the West Indies.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least concern.

Hog Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Axis porcinus
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height 66-74 cm (26-29 in)
HABITAT: Hog deer favour grasslands and swampy areas, especially reed
beds and prairies crossed by streams and rivers.
DISTRIBUTION: Indigenous to North India, Burma and Sri Lanka.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Endangered, decreasing.

Moose/Eurasian Elk

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Alces alces alces
Male: Bull / Female: Cow / Young: Calf
Adult Bull Shoulder Height 1.4 - 2.1m (4.6 - 6.9 ft)
HABITAT: Elk are found in a range of woodland habitats, both coniferous and broadleaved, from the tundra and taiga southwards through boreal to temperate zones. It tends to prefer damp, marshy habitats and areas in close proximity to water. It is also found in open country in the lowlands and mountains, including farmland, if there is forest nearby.
DISTRIBUTION: Large numbers are found throughout Norway, Sweden, Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States, with more modest numbers in the southern Czech Republic, Belarus and northern Ukraine. They are also widespread through Russia on up through the borders with Finland south towards the border with Estonia, Belarus and Ukraine and stretching far away eastwards to the Yenisei River in Siberia.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least concern.

Reeves Muntjac Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Muntiacus reevesi
Male: Buck / Female: Doe / Young: Fawn
Adult Buck Shoulder Height 45-50cm (17-19 in)
HABITAT: Reeves Muntjac can be found in the sub-tropical forests of southern China. In Britain however, they prefer small copses with plenty of cover.
DISTRIBUTION: Reeves Muntjac are just one of at least six species of Muntjac distributed throughout South East Asia. Originally from China, Reeves Muntjac were introduced to Britain around the beginning of the 20th Century.
CONSERVATION STATUS: No stats available.

Pere David

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Elapharus davidianus
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height: 114-122cm (45-48 in)
HABITAT: Very little is known about the natural habitat
of these deer. By the time they became known to the western world in 1865, they were already extinct in the wild
DISTRIBUTION: In captivity, over 400 at Woburn and found in zoos worldwide. Re-introduced to China in 1986.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Critically Endangered.

Red Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cervus elaphus
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height: 100-140com (40-55in)
HABITAT: Native to Britain, Red Deer would have been found many centuries ago dwelling in the great Caledonian forest that would have covered Scotland, however, due to mass deforestation and changing land use, these deer are more commonly found in upland, moorland areas, such as the Scottish Highlands.
DISTRIBUTION: Indigenous throughout Europe and parts of Asia. Feral distribution includes Africa, Australia, New Zealand, South America and the USA.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least Concern, increasing.

Reindeer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Rangifer tarandus caribou
Male: Bull / Female: Cow / Young: Calf
Adult Bull Shoulder Height: 112 cm (44 in).
HABITAT: Reindeer graze throughout the year in the permanently frozen grounds of the tundra. Tundra is the relatively flat land between the polar ice cap and the timberline, where the temperatures are too cold for trees to grow. Because of the tundra's constant frosty conditions, only shrubs, grasses and lichens survive there. Lichen, also referred to as reindeer moss, is similar to moss in appearance and is a combination of algae.
DISTRIBUTION: They are found in the wild in only two areas of the Fennoscandia peninsula of Northern Europe, in Finnish/Russian Karelia and there is a small population in central south Finland.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least Concern, stable.

Sika Deer

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cervus nippon
Male: Stag / Female: Hind / Young: Calf
Adult Stag Shoulder Height: 80cm to 100cm (31-40cm)
HABITAT: Sika live almost exclusively in forests and only venture on to
more open ground in search for food.
DISTRIBUTION: 13 subspecies indigenous throughout Eastern Asia. Feral in
many parts of Europe including large areas of Scotland.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least Concern, increasing.

Wapiti

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cervus canadensis
Male: Bull / Female: Cow / Young: Calf
Adult Bull Shoulder Height:140cm to 150 cm (55-59 in).
HABITAT: Live in open country, forests and parklands, high country (mountains)
DISTRIBUTION: Wapiti or Elk have a wide range in North America and Asia and have been introduced into New Zealand and Australia.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least Concern, stable.

Asian Short Claw Otter

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Aonyx cinereus
Total Length: 65 - 100cm (1/3 of this is tail length)
HABITAT: It lives near streams, rivers, creeks, estuaries and coastal waters as well as in man-made irrigation ditches and rice fields.
DISTRIBUTION: In Asia it is found from the Philippines through Indonesia, South East Asia, Southern China and west wards through the Himalayan foothills of Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal. There is also an isolated population in Southern India.
CONSERVATION STATUS: No immediate threat of extinction, but loss of the Otter's habitat is occurring due to deforestation.

European Brown Bear

SCIENTIFIC NAME:Ursus arctos arctos
Shoulder Height: Up to 1.5m (5ft)
Body Weight: M 130-550kg - F 80-250kg
HABITAT: In most of their range, brown bears generally seems to prefer semiopen country, with a scattering of vegetation that can allow them a resting spot during the day. However, they have been recorded as inhabiting every variety of northern temperate forest known to occur
DISTRIBUTION: Russia and Northern Europe
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least concern (not endangered worldwide, endangered locally in some areas).

Northern Lynx

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Lynx lynx lynx
Total Length: 81-129 cm
HABITAT: Within its range the Lynx is primarily associated with forested and mountainous areas. They prefer decidous forest or old growth Taiga and mixed woodlands with plenty of undergrowth for cover.
DISTRIBUTION: The Northern Lynx is native to European and Siberian forests, South and East Asia. Today it is found from the Steppes of Asia to the forests and rocky plains of Canada, Northern U.S.A and fragmented areas of Europe.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Although now extinct in Scotland, worldwide Lynx are not considered to be an endagered species. Total population is around 50,000 with only 7,000 thought to be in Europe.

Red Fox

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Vulpes vulpes
Total Length: 67 - 72cm (1/3 of this is tail length)
HABITAT: An adaptable scavenger found everywhere from the wildest countryside to busy city centres.
DISTRIBUTION: Distributed across the entire northern hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, Central America, and the steppes of Asia
CONSERVATION STATUS: Least Concern.

Scottish Wildcat

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Felis silvestris grampia
Total Length - 82 - 98cm (male) and 73 - 90cm (female)
HABITAT: Wildcats favour wooded landscapes with a mosaic of habitats especially semi-natural woodland, conifer plantation, scrub, moorland and pastureland. In Scotland they favour the ancient caledonian pine woods.
DISTRIBUTION: It is very difficult to determine the exact distribution of wildcat as many sightings are inconclusive as to whether the sighting is a true wildcat or a hybrid.
CONSERVATION STATUS: Concerned.

Wolves

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Canis lupus
HISTORY: Since the last ice age wild wolves could be found in Scotland. They would roam the woodland preying upon deer. Often they would eat live stock and this meant they suffered much persecution. In 1745 the last wild wolf in Scotland was hunted and killed. The loss of these animals would heavily affect the countryside!
OVERGRAZING: With no top predators left to eat deer their numbers grew and grew. Too many deer means that they eat and damage lots of woodland. This woodland is important not only to humans, but also to the other species which live there. With all these deer something had to be done?
DEER MANAGEMENT: The massive amounts of deer in Scotland gave rise to deer management. It is now down to humans to go out at certain times of the year and cull deer. Not many people like this practice but unfortunately due to the loss of wolves it is a must!

If only 260 years ago people realised how important wolves were for Scotland!!